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First, the content material summary:
To check the understanding of the applicants with the types of risk factors and variators mechanical intrinsic safety requirements of main equipment and places during the manufacture and utilization of machinery.
Second, the important factors, tough points:
(1) Understand the main classes of mechanical products;
(2) Understand the inbuilt safety requirements of mechanical design and the kind of safety device of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler space, air compressor station, gas station, oxygen station, acetylene train station dangerous point and general safety technology administration requirements.
Third, the content material points out:
Machinery is a device that is assembled by a quantity of interconnected parts and may perform certain functions. During the operation of the mechanical tools, at least some of the relatives movements are made regarding to specific guidelines. The total mechanical device consists of a primary mover, a control and control system, a transmission mechanism, a support device and an actuator.
Equipment is an essential equipment in modern production and life. While bringing high effectiveness, velocity and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as effect, extrusion, cutting and additional non-mechanical hazards such as electric surprise, noise and high heat during its manufacture, operation and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and utilization of machinery, from various hazardous factors. Mechanical protection includes two elements of the protection of mechanical product developing and the safety of mechanical tools.
1.1, mechanical product production safety
(1) Primary types of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary items of the machinery market are as follows:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting equipment, etc.
(2) Heavy mining machinery: metallurgical machinery, mining equipment, lifting equipment, launching and unloading equipment, industrial and mining vehicles, cement gear, etc.
(3) Construction machinery: forklifts, earthmoving equipment, compaction equipment, cement equipment, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical substance machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air flow conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding machines, home home appliances, etc.
(6) Machine equipment: metallic reducing machine equipment, forging machines, foundry equipment, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Cars: trucks, street buses, vehicles, modified vehicles, motor bikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automated musical instruments, electric tools, optical instruments, element analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electrical tools, audio-visual gear, cameras, etc.
(9) Fundamental machinery: bearings, hydraulic parts, closes, powder metallurgy items, regular fasteners, commercial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging products, metal containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, atmosphere pollution prevention equipment, solid waste treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Other machinery.
The main products of the non-mechanical industry include railway machinery, construction equipment, textile machinery, light industrial machinery, and underwater machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Security style minimizes risk. Mechanical safety design refers to the proper shape and relatives placement from the component materials to the component in the mechanical style stage, from restricting the working pressure, the quality and acceleration of the shifting parts to reducing sound and vibration, using inbuilt basic safety technology and power supply, applying zero The theory of pressured mechanical action between components, mixed with ergonomic desk principles and various other methods, avoids or reduces the risk by selecting suitable style buildings; it can also improve the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the products and Methods such as modifications and maintenance outside the risk zone to prevent or decrease the danger.
Intrinsically safe
Inbuilt safety is normally a mechanical safety method that is normally adopted by mechanical designers to take measures to eliminate mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic protection technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions simply by using this technology. It can fulfill the security requirements of the machine itself when performing predetermined features of the machine under predetermined conditions without using other security safety measures. These consist of: avoiding razor-sharp sides, razor-sharp edges and bulges; making sure adequate safety distances; determining limits on physical quantities; using intrinsically safe procedures and power resources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a sufficient safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Protection of components and materials
Components, fuels, and materials used to make machinery need to not endanger the basic safety or wellness of staff during use. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile power, shear strength, impact durability, yield limit, etc., should meet the weight requirements for executing the designed function; the material should become capable to withstand the established environmental conditions, such as corrosion level of resistance, aging level of resistance, and resistance. The ability to wear; the material should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic framework of the material from becoming uneven credited to unreasonable procedure style, and generate residual stress; at the same period, prevent using poisonous materials or substances, and should prevent the equipment itself or due to use. The risk of fireplace and explosion from fumes, fluids, dust, vapors or other substances produced by particular materials.
4) Fulfilling safety ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the security man-machine design principle is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space layout, etc., improving the operability and reliability of mechanical equipment, and producing the operator’s physical strength Intake and emotional stress are minimized, therefore reducing operational errors.
5) Security concepts for designing control systems
During the use of machinery, the typical harmful conditions are: unintended start, out of control of rate alter, motion can not prevent, moving mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of safety products is definitely obstructed. The style of the control program should consider into accounts the operating modes of the numerous functions or the use of fault display devices to ensure that the agent can deal with them properly.
6) Prevent the dangers of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Machines that use pneumatic, hydraulic, heat, and other products need to end up being designed to avoid the potential risks associated with animal release of these energies.